In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria.
At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, and the Khazars took over much of the land.
The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC.
During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity.
Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014.
making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world.
During the reign of his son, Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054), Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power.
Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations.
Northern migrations, reaching almost to the Ilmen lakes, led to the emergence of the Ilmen Slavs, Krivichs, and Radimichs, the groups ancestral to the Russians.
Ukraine is a developing country and ranks 88th on the Human Development Index.
As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe.